Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Going to a Foreign Country - Essay Example It is always difficult for one to go to a foreign land and spend time away from family and friends. But then again there are some decisions in life which require sacrifice of the highest order. If I ever go abroad to pursue higher education, I would face difficulty in the beginning coping up with the norms and behaviors of the society in which I have stepped into as well as dearly miss my friends and family members. However I realize that this is a short phase which would occur mostly in the starting and with things settling down, I will feel all at ease within the foreign country. In the pursuit of knowledge, I am ready to undertake such a visit to a foreign country but I know this beforehand that I would come back to serve my own motherland so that my country benefits from my education and related experience that I have gained in the foreign country. I have made it a point to dedicate myself whole-heartedly towards studies once I land in the foreign country. I would not indulge in acts which are unbecoming of a student and devote all my energies towards something constructive. I would find ways to interact with my peers and ask them for their help if ever I drop into some problem. I will proactively help my mates without their even asking for the same. I would make a schedule for myself so that I could study within my free time and also understand a little about the culture of the foreign country. I would communicate with people in their own language so that they feel I am a part of them.
Monday, July 22, 2019
Integration of Evidence-Based Practice Into Professional Nursing Practice Essay In this paper we will discuss the integration of evidence based practice into professional nursing practice. Scott McSherry (2008) define evidence based practice as the combination of individual, clinical, or professional expertise with the best available external evidence to produce practice that is most likely to lead to positive outcomes for a patient. Despite literature surrounding what evidence based nursing is and isnÃ¢â¬â¢t, nurses struggle to get evidence into practice. Many reasons have been reported including a lack of understanding about evidence based nursing means. Scott McSherry (2008) also define evidence based nursing is a process by which nurses make clinical decisions using the best available research evidence, their clinical expertise and patient outcomes. We will also discuss nursingÃ¢â¬â¢s simultaneous reliance on and critique of EBP in the context of critical reasoning. There will also be discussion of a study done that examined the effects of integrating evidence based practice into clinical practicum among RN-BSN students and the limitations of evidence based practice and an alternate view of decision making. Lastly we will discuss evidence that challenges the traditional practice regarding injection sites (Cocoman Murray 2010). According to Guem et al. (2010) evidenced based practice is a problem solving approach to clinical care that incorporates the conscious us of the current best available evidence, a clinicianÃ¢â¬â¢s expertise, and the patient values. Evidence for evidence based practice does not always rely on research findings. Sources used can include research findings, clinical experience, quality improvement data, logical reasoning, recognized authority, and client satisfaction, situation, experience, and value (Leddy Pepper 2008 p. 66). On the contrary evidence based nursing is essential because of its potential to save time and money and improve patient outcomes by decreasing costs, through standardizing and streamlining costs (Scott McSherry 2008). It is important o understand the difference between evidence based practice and evidence based nursing because at times they are used interchangeably. Scott McSherry (2008) state that the nursing practice has welcomed EBP but when it comes to EBN, it is still yet to come reality because the concept is much unsophisticated and can lead to problems associated with its use and misuse. EBN is merely a construct and has yet to be successfully implemented (Scott McSherry 2008). In essence the dilemma with EBN is that we donÃ¢â¬â¢t really know the definition of nursing. Although there are problems with the definition we know that clinical judgment is one of the major concepts used in nursing thus it reinforces the notion of EBP and ultimately EBP. To advance the profession and ensure solid standards of practice, we should look beyond evidence based practice, while useful in implementation it is just one of many other component parts (Jutel 2008). Evidence based practice is like the new black in nursing practice and already occupies a prominent position, several international nursing organizations support its use as a strategic action in the advancement of the profession. Despite the emphasis on EBP, there is also a strong opposition to it, not with the actual use of EBP being a problem but with the fundamentals on which it stands. These arguments complain of the veracity of the criteria used in EBP which simultaneously undermines and cannot support EBP (Jutel 2008). If it had not been for the cultural turn which recognized that things are not always as they seem or that power, society, and culture contribute as much as science to generating knowledge, the debate about EBP would have never surfaced (Jutel 2008). Although nurses argue against EBP, they lack important tools necessary to replace EBP. Ã¢â¬Å"Nursing education places high value on authority and adherence to clinical protocols, rather than on skillsÃ¢â¬ (Jutel, 2008. P. 419). Opponents of EBP suggests that development of clinical practice guidelines, critical care pathways, and protocols may actually interfere and entice practitioners to develop somewhat of a cookbook recipe attitude to client care (Leddy Pepper 2010). With quality improvement being rooted in industrial production, perhaps standardization may not be as desirable because patients have unique needs and characteristics the may be overlooked when adhering to strict clinical practice guidelines. Nursing adopts a devoted and somewhat naive trust when assessing information, we are quick to accept the truths of a peer reviewed article, drug company propaganda, and quick to accept an argument on inconsistencies of EBP. The tools EBP claims to own, are incredibly useful, however, are not tools of EBP; they are critical skills of information appraisal. As evidence based practice rapidly replaces the traditional paradigm of healthcare decision making, health care members have an obligation to access knowledge, apply it in practice, and lead others to use it appropriately (Geum et al. 010 p. 387). For example RN-BSN programs; these are adult students who have clinical knowledge and skill, structured background and educational preparation and employment experience but have not taken a formal research course, thus they show less confidence to include evidence based practice in their practices because these are courses that are not common outside a baccalaureate curriculum. To examine the effectiveness of the integration of EBP into a clinical practicum a study was done among Korean RN-BSN students. The main goals were to enhance studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ competencies for EBP knowledge skills and attitudes and to expose students to opportunities that would encourage the use of best evidence (Geum et al. 2008). Each student was instructed to define patients nursing problems for their individually assigned patient and to formulate nursing problems using the EBP question format, PICO, which we discussed earlier in the semester, to select the nursing intervention for the problems posed. Before the EBP practicum, the overall and individual scores for EBP efficacy among RN-BSN students indicated that students were Ã¢â¬Å"a little confidentÃ¢â¬ regarding the EBP process (Geum et al. 2008, p. 389). Results of this study indicate that integration of EBP into an RN-BSN clinical practicum had a positive effect on EBP efficacy and decreased barriers to research utilization among students in Korea, which also corroborates with studies conducted in other countries. Evidence based practice is a learned set of skills thus critical thinking is vital in developing evidence based nursing practice (Geum et al. 2008). Regardless if the evidence on complications, nurses in clinical settings still continue to use and instruct nursing students on the use of dorsogluteal injection sites as the site of choice for intramuscular injections (Cocoman Murray 2010). So, where should an intramuscular (IM) injection be given? Nurses have traditionally used the dorsogluteal, but recent literature has advocated the ventrogluteal site. Choosing sites has been a matter of personal preference, rather than the results of evidence based practice. Slow uptake of medications, major nerves and blood vessels present make this site problematic. A British study suggests Ã¢â¬Å"as previous studies have shown the low efficacy of gluteal intramuscular injections, this route should be avoided for most drugsÃ¢â¬ (Cocoman Murray, 2010. P. 1171). As the sciatic nerve lies only a few centimeters from the injection site, injuries pose a significant threat, making the need for accurately identifying landmarks especially important. An alternative site is the ventrogluteal, seen by many as the preferred site. This site provides the greatest thickness of gluteal muscle and is free from penetrating nerves and blood vessels (Cocoman Murray 2010). Despite evidence favoring the ventrogluteal site, nurses are slow to use it, relying on the much taught and used dorsogluteal site. Ã¢â¬Å"Studies show that only 12% of American nursing staff uses the ventrogluteal siteÃ¢â¬ (Cocoman Murray 2010. P. 1172). Studies suggest that some reasons the site is not used is because of nursesÃ¢â¬â¢ unfamiliarity in locating the site and potential needle stick injury. Unfortunately, nurses have not come to realize that when using the V method, the non injecting hand is to be removed, as itÃ¢â¬â¢s only used for visual land marking (Cocoman Murray 2010). Throughout this paper we have discussed the integration of evidence based practice into nursing from various articles. In the various articles the authors talked about evidence based practice compared to evidence based nursing, the integration of evidence based practice in RN-BSN programs. We also discussed the article on a clinical example which suggested that the ventrogluteal intramuscular injection site over the dorsogluteal site is preferred when it comes to positive patient outcomes.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Relationship Between Mind And Body The relationship between the mind and body has been a preoccupation among philosophers since the Greek antiquity, with famous writers such as 5th Century philosopher Plato, and his student Aristotle. Ideas concerning the mind and body originate as far back as Platos and Aristotles time, whereby they questioned whether or not intelligence is connected with the body. In the 16th Century, Michel de Montaigne treated the same question again, and it was then continued in the 17th Century but by RenÃ © Descartes and Blaise Pascal. Their point of view is diverse and the conclusion that they reach upon at times is somewhat in a way satisfying to each other or plain rejects. Before embarking on the essay, a brief explanation on their works will be examined. Michel de Montaigne was one of the most influential yet sceptical writers of the 16th Century, especially with his Essais being a compilation of various short topics describing man and human nature. His essays had direct influence on other classical thinkers such as RenÃ © Descartes and Blaise Pascal. Blaise Pascal was not only an influential French philosopher, but he was also a French mathematician and physicist. His unfinished most famous work in philosophy, PensÃ ©es, is a series of philosophical sections and essays, whereby Pascal identifies and explores the contradictions of human nature with regards to psychology and sociology. Pascal used his personal thoughts and opinions concerning human suffering and religious beliefs to write this philosophy towards the close of his life. French philosopher, but also a mathematician and scientist RenÃ © Descartes, had published two well known philosophical works in history called Discours de la MÃ ©thode and MÃ ©ditations MÃ ©taphysiques. Descartes main goal was to present us with a series of thoughts that he took into consideration, in order to shed light on his views on God and the existence. RÃ ©ne Descartes was, by nature a dualist. In fact, he created the notion of Cartesian dualism and was the first person to clearly classify the mind with consciousness and to differentiate this from the brain, which held intelligence. Cartesian dualism viewed that ones intelligence cannot be touched and is non-physical. He was the first to create the mind and body problem, an issue which tried to question how the mind and body can interact, especially if the mind is based solely on thought and the body is purely an addition. This was the basic breadth of the mind-body debate which began during the times of Plato and Aristotle and extended long past Descartess death. Aristotle believed mind was connected to the soul. The mind is the soulss object, which becomes active only when it thinks. The soul, which is also known as the intellect, does not work unless it is thinking. Therefore, it is unlikely that it would be mixed with the body. Aristotle was therefore a thinker who was more concerned with the metaphysical concepts. Platos thought was more based on concrete principles of the natural world. While Aristotle described the levels of reality, Plato focused on subjects such as how one could be of a righteous character, and therefore a better person within themselves. Cartesian dualism permits both these theories to work together in order to be recognised as one. Descartes, like Montaigne and Pascal to some extent, were philosophers who all had different ways of going about their works. Descartes used more indirect means of philosophising. Meanwhile, Pascal would have been purposely direct and informative, as a mathematician who drew on his knowledge of the sciences in order to develop his conclusions. On the other hand, Montaigne studied himself with subjects such as religion, philosophy, humanism as he believed this was crucial in order to describe human nature. These three Frenchmen contrasted with their views regarding the mind and the body. While Descartes thought that the mind was separate from the body, Montaigne along with Pascal definitely would have argued that the mind was part of the physical body. Obviously, there are good arguments for and against these two very different views, which will be explained. Montaigne preferred to make his opinions clear by providing facts in order to attempt to uncover the truth, providing the readers a chance to analyse his thoughts personally. His aim was to describe man and human nature by using memory as a description to address his topic. This is what he did to highlight his view on the mind and body. He argued that the development of the mind is connected to the body and expressed how he believed the imagination is the drive for the downfall of the body. His philosophy regarding these two substances is one of which explains his view that a healthy mind comes from the studies of other great writers. Lame que loge la philosophie doit, par sa santÃ ©, render sain encores le corps. (Montaigne: 208: 1969) He argues that anyone who is taught by the philosophy of past great writers will have the perfect body, as he believes thinking for oneself is truly unhealthy for the body and mind. Therefore, according to him there is only one type of education whic h should be used, based purely on thoughts of the past to achieve both a healthy body and mind. In order to transform a child to becoming a well formed healthy man, there should be a connection between the mind and body. Throughout De Linstitution des enfants Montaigne proves his opinions for training both body and mind and therefore the tutor is responsible for this training as ce nest pas assez de luy roidir lame; il luy faut ausi roidir les muscles. (Montaigne: 201: 1969) When training the body, two advantages appear. Firstly, the mind is able to relax and secondly the body is able to build itself for the prevention of illnesses. Therefore, the mind cannot work unless the body has been trained. Furthermore, tout lieu retirÃ © requiert un proumenoir. Mes pensees dorment, si je les assis. Mon esprit ne va pas seul, comme si les jambes lagitent. Ceux qui estudient sans livre, en sont tous lÃ . (Montaigne: 76: 1993) Even though he was distracted by his books, he persists that one cannot achieve the pleasure of reading unless our mind and body are exercised in the correct manner. There is a healthy regime of the mind no less than of the body, and in fact the two are inseparable. An inquiring mind will be just as active as a healthy body in the pursuit of its interests. (ONeill: 101:2001) According to Montaigne, it is common for one to believe that the mind operates in a different manner to the body. But, even the active life of the body is inseparable from intelligence which itself is not exercised simply by closing ones eyes. (ONeill: 101: 2001) Thus, one should not separate these two elements. We can understand that Montaigne fully believes in this connection. Descartes was able to make complex philosophical concepts simple by breaking them down into manageable pieces. This is what he tried to do with the mind and body problem in order to insist that they are two unique substances, with the mind being regarded as a non-physical element, without connecting to the body. He therefore believed that he could live without the mind. Secondly, that the mind and the body may be dissimilar but they do interact. Nevertheless, he understands that this relationship is not ideal in that doÃ ¹ il est entiÃ ¨rement manifeste que, nonobstant la souveraine bontÃ © de Dieu, la nature de lhomme, en tant quil est composÃ © de lesprit et du corps, ne peut quelle ne soit quelquefois fautive et trompeuse. (Descartes: 89:1992) The mind and body are surely two separate things in some senses of the word, but Descartes could have seamlessly made these two entities dualist aspects that can and must be separated. This is because intelligence comes from a place which cannot be defined. One cannot control the human mind and simply confine it to the body, because intelligence is completely separate from ones physical capabilities. For example, if one were to be paralysed from the neck down, Descartes would argue that the mind would still be unharmed. Similarly, someone could be unconscious but their brainwaves could still be functioning well. Since he believed in the power of the mind and intelligence, he was a deep thinker. Descartes argues, quil y a une grande diffÃ ©rence entre lesprit et le corps, en ce que le corps, de sa nature, est toujours divisible, et que lesprit est entiÃ ¨rement indivisibleÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦. je considÃ ¨re mon esprit, cest-Ã -dire moi-mÃ ªme en tant que je suis seulement une chose qui pense, je ny puis distinguer aucunes parties, mais je me conÃ §ois comme une chose seule et entiÃ ¨reÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.lesprit semble Ã ªtre uni Ã tout le corps, toutefois un piedÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ou quelque autre partie Ã ©tant sÃ ©parÃ ©e de mon corps, il est certain que pour cela il ny aura rien de retranchÃ © de mon esprit. (Descartes: 86: 1992) Descartes disputes that the mind and body are separable, and argues that the mind is different to the body and therefore one can exist without the use of the other. Furthermore, to clarify this argument, Descartes gives an explanation of the body. If man loses a limb or part of their body, they have not lost the mind. According to Descartes , the mind is the core element that makes him aware that he exists. His well known philosophical quotation je pense donc je suis (Descartes: 110: 2000) is connected to this theory of dualism as it forms the basis of it. According to him, we exist due to the fact that we think. He realises that he has a working mind, without being entirely sure that he has a body. The combination of mind and body presents Descartes views of a genuine human being (Cottingham: 7:1999). He realised that a problem could not simply be analysed on the common sense level. Moreover, his statement cest-a-dire lame par laquelle je suis ce que je suis, est entierement distincte du corps, (Descartes : 111 :2000) can assert that the soul is the fundamental self, in contrast to the Thomist thesis that a human being is essentially a composite of body and soul. (Moriarty : 142: 2003) It is possible for one to doubt everything from God to ones body, but it is not possible for one to deny the fact that there is a consciousness, which led him to this famous motto. He realised doubting t he truth would be the only manner in which he would find out what was essentially true regarding the mind and body. However, he managed to put this aside and found one true belief, cogito ergo sum. (Descartes: 110:2000. His belief in God is strong, as he believes God is all-powerful. This enables him to believe that anything he wishes to visualise is without a doubt possible. If he can prove Gods existence, then he will be able to confirm other truths in life. Since the mind and body can be considered clearly as separate, it means that it is possible for God to make it happen. Descartes is not exactly clear on the connection between mind and body, but we can deduce from his work that he did not think they were related. Even though this was the case, he still discusses at some length the nature of the union of the human mind with its body. (Wilson: 177: 1982) Most likely, Descartes would take a roundabout way at arriving at his conclusions. First, he would take an abstract concept, by using the mind and intelligence as a kind of springboard for talking about other subjects more liberally. Then, he would continue to use evidence to back up his theoretical reasoning, probably using more abstractions to support his theoretical concept. Finally, he would wrap up in summation by using some concrete examples of what he was talking about in abstract terms. He believed in what he thought made him who he was. Un autre est de penser; et je trouve ici que la pensÃ ©e est un attribut qui mappartient : elle seule ne peut Ã ªtre dÃ ©tachÃ ©e de moi. (Descartes : 2000 : 25) not so with Pascal, who could clearly distinguish between the thought processes and separate that out from himself. Pascal, who preferred making explanations about various aspects of reality difficult and layered it with complicated aspects of knowledge argued against the dualist, and easily made the reverse of the mind and body argument. According to him, doubt could only lead to more doubt. He believed that one could not explain ones existence through reasoning and that man is mostly guided by beliefs and feelings. Therefore, the only solution and help is faith. One can only gain certain knowledge through obedience to God. He also confirmed that one may not be able to use his mind due to a certain reason, but yet his body would be kept physically alive. Je puis bien concevoir un homme sans mains, pieds, tete, car ce nest que lexperience qui nous apprend que la tete est plus necessaire que les pieds. Mais je ne puis concevoir lhomme sans pensee. Ce serait une pierre ou une brute. (Pascal: 107:2000) Therefore, it would seem that the mind and body definitely would be connected. Pascal also believe d in the power of the mind, but his focus was more on the physical and the reality of the body. The body is a concrete substance, and empirical in the sense that its functions can be measured and regulated. In his implications, he will find religious yet ethnical views to explain the mind and body problem. For instance he quotes toute notre dignite consiste donc en la pensee. Cest de lÃ quil faut nous relever, et non de lespace et de la duree, que nous ne saurions remplir. Travaillons donc a bien penser. Voila le principe de la morale. (Pascal: 171: 2000) It is possible to note his stress on morality here as he wants to acknowledge the suffering of human existence that could be found from these two non-connecting substances. Pascal would have been much more of a mathematical thinker. He thought in a linear fashion, and his arguments were in relation to geometry theorems. First, Pascal would begin with one argument and then logically make sure the other arguments followed in a linear sequence. For example, he would take one statement which would be his main idea. Next, Pascal would most likely support this idea with relevant evidence and facts. He would clearly and succinctly make his case as for why the mind and the body were one and the same element. Pascal was primarily concerned with the differences between the intuitive mind and the mathematical mind. In some ways, this would have been the difference between Descartes, Pascal and Montaigne. The mind and the body are surely two separate things in some senses of the word, but Descartes could have seamlessly made these two entities dualist aspects that can and must be separated. Pascal and Montaigne would have no doubt argued in the contra, that the mind and body are ultimately one and the same. However, any philosopher would see that all three philosophers would have had equally valid arguments in trying to convince people of their view. Each philosopher had very valid points about their own positions that would lend relevance to each of their particular theories. Pascal saw himself as a defender of Christianity, whilst Descartes knew himself as purely a philosopher. Without question, Pascal did take into consideration Descartes belief on the mind and body, but he did not believe that Cartesian Dualism was between the soul and the body, but instead between the infinity of God and sin of men. Montaigne accepted that the mind and body were connected, but should be used in the correct manner in order to work efficiently. Yet, all three thinkers share opinions regarding the creation of human and with this we can discover how they both have certain views in common. They both consider human beings as having a body, mind and thought, and because of this, Pascal regard man as un Roseau pensant. (Pascal: 171: 2000) They also realise that the mind and consciousness can encompass the body. These philosophers were all thinkers who looked at the world from their own perspectives and tried to make sense of their worlds. They tried using reason in order to make deductions and educated guesses, making sure to try their hardest to come to logical conclusions. As we can see, the relationship between the mind and body as conceived by all three philosophers vary. Both Montaigne and Pascal believe in the connection of the mind and the body, but Descartes does not. Pascal was hugely influenced by Montaignes writings and this could be the reason why they shared more of the same thoughts. Descartes was also influenced by the works of Montaigne, but had more of an influence from Aristotle and Plato. Both Montaigne and Pascal were sceptics and therefore questioned and rejected ideas of their times, which resulted in doubt. But whilst Montaigne did not find this a problem, Pascal did as he was over whelmed with religious doubts. Alternatively, Montaigne and Descartes differed because Descartes strongly agreed with the dualist view that the mind and body are independent substances. But, all three philosophers argued in favour of Gods existence. For Montaigne, he argued religion and human values through sceptic philosophy and doubt, Descartes through doubt and Pascal through faith. Descartes chose to understand that the mind must be separate from the body and therefore, intelligence was a nonphysical entity. Pascal and Montaigne thought intelligence and the mind were part of the body and also the same. In that sense, all three men were classically trained philosophical thinkers who followed in the footsteps of their predecessors by rationally deducing logical and well-thought-out arguments. Each of these men should be revered for their great contributions to society. 2990 words
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Boy Talk We keep tally marks (with parenthetical comments) in my little black book. When we score, we call them glory points. We conceived the idea on a Friday night of meandering around coffee shops, discussing the book Catcher in the Rye. I convinced my friend Michael that Catcher in the Rye satires pathetically alienated teens and mocks the protagonist as much as anyone else - and thus bore our tradition. We score glory points by convincing the other that he is wrong; my little black book is the memo pad I use for keeping phone numbers, homework assignments, other assorted notes, and of course, glory points. At the moment, I am beating Michael five to four in the "glory game." Michael actually gave me the book "Catcher in the Rye" to read somewhere near the end of my freshman year, at the time when I had very few friends because I had just changed schools. He, also being an alienated youth, began to talk to me about phonies and other Holden Caufieldesque things. To this day, he brags about how he drove me into a "three month depression." From the philosophy of Holden Caufield, we have since progressed to arguing philosophy and politics. Prior to discussing phonies, Michael and I had never gotten far beyond the surface-levels of conversation. That kind of relationship wasn't unusual for me - virtually every relationship I had was as shallow as a kiddie pool. In fact, discussing phonies was a breakthrough for me, if only because we exchanged some semblance of ideas about personal psychology. Michael and I thoroughly agreed: "Everybody in the world is a phony - except me." (We never did figure our if the "everybody" included the other person.) During the summer between my freshman and sophomore years, I began to miss people - no one person in particular, just those mystical creatures that I missed walking down the street while I spent three or four days inside reading and watching television. I made something of a commitment to myself to actually befriend more than the handful of people I talked to over that summer. I committed myself to making close friends whom I could talk to about personal problems. Friends, ironically, like Michael. Michael and I moved to this topic near the end of that summer, at a time when he was in the process of switching to a private high school from our old, public high school.
Friday, July 19, 2019
The History of the Internet Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Greg Rice Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 4/25/00 The Internet has update the computer and communications world like nothing before. The invention of the telegraph, telephone, radio, and computer set the stage for this unprecedented integration of capabilities. The Internet is at once a world-wide broadcasting capability, a mechanism for information distribution, and a medium for collaboration and interaction between individuals and their computers without regard for geographic location. The Internet represents one of the most successful examples of the benefits of sustained investment and commitment to research and development of information infrastructure. Beginning with the early research in packet switching, the government, industry and academia have been partners in evolving and deploying this exciting new technology. Over its fifteen year history, the Internet has functioned as a collaboration among cooperating parties. Certain key functions have been critical for its operation, not the least of which is the specification of the protocols by which the components of the system operate. To get to the origins of the Internet, we have to go back in time to 1957. You probably have no cause to remember, but it was International Geophysical Year, a year dedicated to gathering information about the upper atmosphere during a period of intense solar activity. Eisenhower announced in 1955 that, as part of the activities, the USA hoped to launch a small Earth orbiting satellite. Then Kremlin announced that it hoped to do likewise. Planning in America was focussed on a sophisticated three stage rocket, but in Russia they took a more direct approach, on 4 October 1957 the USSR launched (a 70 kgs bleeping sphere the size of a medicine ball) into Earth orbit. The effect in the United States was electrifying, since it seemed overnight to wipe out the feeling on invulnerability the country had enjoyed since the explosion of the first nuclear bomb thirteen years before. One of the immediate reactions was the creation of the Advanced Research Projects Agency within the Ministry of De fense. Its mission was to apply state-of-the-art technology to US defense and to avoid being surprised (again!) by technological advances of the enemy. It was also given interim control of the US satellite program until the creation of NASA in October 1958. ARPA became the technological think-tank of the American defense effort, employing directly a couple of hundred top scientists and with a budget sufficient for sub-contracting research to other top American institutions.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
R. S. V My Life Learning Experience with R. S. V Name Course Title Teacher Date Abstract Many individuals have experienced problems with their hospitals or health care facilities. An important concept that I learned from facing this family crisis that will be examined in this paper is that, when a family member becomes seriously ill, they need quality medical care. Sometimes, when a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life is at stake, the further a person lives from medical facilities which can offer quality care can be a grave factor. R. S. V 1 R. S. V in Infants This paper will examine several lessons and concepts which I learned from personal life-learning experiences. Three examples that will be addressed in this paper will examine a different aspect of a certain life-learning experience. In researching and analyzing each aspect of a life-learning experience, this paper will examine the four elements of KolbÃ¢â¬â¢s Model of Experimental Learning. The first aspect of the lessons I learned after enduring a family crisis which this paper will explore includes how I learned about an illness that frequently affects infants called Respiratory Syncytial Virus. Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, is a respiratory virus which has many of the same symptoms as the common cold and is usually contracted by children during winter months. After my newborn son, Carter Forrest Barnhart began displaying symptoms of a common cold, my husband and I took Carter to his local pediatrician. Unfortunately, the pediatrician improperly diagnosed the virus as a simple common cold and sent Carter, my husband and I back home. However, after we returned home, his symptoms did not improve. Instead, he began coughing profusely and did not want to eat. I became greatly concerned about our sonÃ¢â¬â¢s health. Within a few days, Carter had lost weight and become weak. Then his breathing appeared to be abnormal, and my husband and I began to suspect that something else was wrong with Carter. R. S. V 2 By April 7th, 2002, CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s breathing problems got considerably worse, and my husband and I thought that he could possibly suffocate. So, in a desperate attempt to help CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s health, we brought our son to the nearest hospital. He was then hospital, arrangements needed to be made to send him to Charleston Area Medical Center. Carter later arrived safely at the Women and ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Hospital, a division of the Charleston Area Medical Center in Charleston, West Virginia. He was then placed in the hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, where he remained for five days. Looking back, I now realize the high importance of residing in communities which have high quality health care facilities. I learned that the first doctor who diagnosed my son did not diagnose Carter properly by failing to recognize that what looked like the common cold was actually Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV). The pediatricianÃ¢â¬â¢s error could have cost my son his life. After Carter was taken to the emergency room at our local hospital, I learned that, when someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life is at stake, the distance from a medical facility which can provide quality care is sometimes a life and death matter. Thus, one of the lessons that I learned by this life-learning experience is that it is important for all individuals to have quick access to a state of the art hospital or medical facility. A medical facility must be able to provide the excellent care that a seriously ill R. S. V 3 ndividual needs. In this example, a baby needed to be treated by a special infant care unit, which our local hospitals did not have. Therefore, the baby did not have ready access to the kind of medical facility that he needed. The proper medical facility can mean the difference of life or death, thus, I now understand that the quality of the medical facilities, and the services received from those facilities provided, is one of the important issues facing people today. Learning about the importance of living near a high quality health care facility helped me become amiliar with the idea that a person should be fully educated about the health services in his or her community before something critical occurs. I regretted the fact that we were not more prepared to deal with this crisis. Thus, I have since learned that I need to research the qualifications of any professional my child will be receiving treatment from. In the future, I will research hospitals or schools before enrolling my child in them. I can also apply the concept that quality care is an important aspect of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life to other situations as well. For example, I will have o make sure that my child has a qualified pediatrician and dentist to take care of his health needs in the future. I will also have to ensure that my child gets his vaccinations. Moreover, I learned that there is no substitute for being prepared for an emergency situation. I plan on researching the response time of our police and fire departments and plan to learn about the efficiency of our ambulance services. Another part of the lessons I learned while confronting this family crisis is how I learned that high quality heath care is best provided by highly qualified doctors. I lso learned that an unqualified doctor may easily misdiagnose a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s symptoms. The discussion below will show how I have learned to ask questions before selecting a pediatrician. My son was initially treated by a pediatrician who misdiagnosed the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s medical symptoms and declared that our infant was we were told to take our child home and give him some cold medicine. This was our childÃ¢â¬â¢s only treatment, and the medicine did not work. CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s symptoms did not improve after a reasonable period of time. Thus, my husband and I began to suspect that something else could be wrong. Then, when our baby turned pasty in color, started to cry inconsolably, refused to eat or drink anything, lost weight, and then hardly cried or moved in his crib, my husband and I became more concerned. We later learned that Carter had RSV and double pneumonia. Since then, I have spoken to many doctors about rural medicine. One of the doctors I spoke to that works at our local hospital explained in a recent personal interview which I conducted with him that many people do not ask enough questions of their doctors after they have been told the results of a diagnosis. He advised that potential atients should ask about all terms that describe the problem and that the doctor should fully explain the R. S. V 5 condition to the patient. More importantly, when the patient is a baby, the infantÃ¢â¬â¢s parents need to understand the complete diagnosis of their childÃ¢â¬â¢s condition The doctor also said that a great deal of rural patients do not know how to properly ask their doctors specific questions related to the diagnosis. Therefore, rural doctors need to take more time to explain things to their patients, especially in cases where doctors are not absolutely sure of the diagnosis. I was also told that some patients have no reason to be told when something is misdiagnosed as nothing more than the common cold, especially when a childÃ¢â¬â¢s doctor confidently tells an infantÃ¢â¬â¢s parents that the symptoms should improve when the baby took the cold medicine. The lesson is that parents must be very careful when choosing a pediatrician. I learned that a good pediatrician knows how to check a baby for a variety of diseases. In the case of my son, the first pediatrician failed to properly diagnose the baby because he was, at the very least, was not familiar with the symptoms of RSV. Thus, I learned that receiving treatment from a qualified pediatrician is an essential part of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s health care. I also realized, in other areas of my life, I need to be certain that I am qualified to perform any Job that I might later want to undertake. So it is imperative that I take my education as serious as possible so that I will later be prepared to succeed in my chosen career. R. S. V6 Another important concept that I learned through my life-learning experience is that Just like other people, doctors make errors too. Unfortunately, a doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s mistake can cause the loss of ones life. Any professional should avoid making unnecessary mistakes at all times. Therefore, I would like to avoid making mistakes which would be considered negligence in my chosen career. Thus, I now believe that I need as much training in the field of health care management as possible, because that is the field which I intend to begin my professional career once I have received my Bachelors Degree. I also now would like to become actively involved in professional organizations and associations in which school friends and successful will help me exchange information with other health care management professionals hich will hopefully help me keep atop of current developments in my field. The third aspect of the lessons I learned which this paper will explore is that many rural health care facilities in America do not have up to date equipment. I also learned that, for the past several years, many local family health care facilities have suffered from recent cutbacks in federal grant money. This paper will now discuss my findings about the importance of selecting a health care facility which has up to date equipment and employees that keep on top of current developments in the medical ield. R. S. V7 Not only were the doctors more knowledgeable at the Women and ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Hospital in Charleston, but the doctors at the hospital in Charleston also had more current equipment and also performed their duties much more quickly and efficiently than the doctors at the local hospital. I learned that, when the life of a loved one is at stake, a hospital with modern equipment and trained staff can mean the difference between life and death. I also now believe that parents should visit the local hospitals before their first child is ever born to make sure those hospitals re not understaffed, dirty, or not funded properly. While larger hospitals may charge more money for visits, the money paid for a proper diagnosis at a quality facility is far less than the money one might pay if an illness is misdiagnosed. In addition, local medical care facilities need to provide quality, up to date services to their patients. In this situation, Carter needed to be treated in a special care unit in which Ã¢â¬Å"patients are attached to electronic monitors which track vital functions as well as to other equipment that support breathingÃ¢â¬ (Roberts, 1993, p. 170). Unfortunately, only larger acilities usually have modern pediatric intensive care units, and large hospitals are not all cities. I have learned that a high quality health care facility should have up to date equipment. Modern equipment is essential to provide patients with the best possible R. S. V8 health care. However, a lot of rural hospitals cannot afford this. The issue of a facility which does not have modern equipment is a very important one, and the concept applies to other situations which I may have to deal with later on. For instance, I will want to make sure that, any school my child is enrolled in should have adequate acilities. I will want to ensure that the school has smoke detectors in every classroom and that the fire extinguishers are in proper working order. This paper analyzed the various lessons and concepts that I learned from some Ã¢â¬Å"life-learningÃ¢â¬ experiences. Each of the paperÃ¢â¬â¢s three parts explored a different aspect of my experiences. This paper used the four elements of KolbÃ¢â¬â¢s Model of Experimental Learning to detail how I used the lessons during a family crisis. R. S. V9 References Mesa, CA: ICN Pharmaceuticals. Roberts, M. J. (1993). Your Money or Your Life: The Health Care Crisis Explained. New York: Doubleday.