Monday, December 9, 2019

Aboriginal Spirituality Essay Example For Students

Aboriginal Spirituality Essay The aboriginals have lived in Australia for thousands of years. They had little outside contact until the British arrived two hundred years ago. The aboriginals have one of the oldest unchanged religions in the world. They believe in the Dreaming and respect the environment around them. This assignment will break the aboriginal religion into Smartys seven dimensions. Method logy The three SORE classes in grade II traveled to Challenge on the 3rd of May, 2006. On the way to Challenge we stopped at Tijuana which is an Aboriginal Cultural Park. At Tijuana we learned about aboriginal way Of life and history. After Tijuana we went to SST Stephens College, where we talked to some local elders. At Challenge we went to caves and saw aboriginal art work and artifacts. History Challenge was near the boundary oftener aboriginal tribes; the Washman, Waxwork and Duggan people. James Venture Mulligan was the first European person in the Challenge region; he found the Challenge- Palmer River gold field in 1887. William Thereon built a homestead in the area and called the area Challenge. A wealthy man named John Nonfat was interest in mining and found dative copper in 1887. By 1894 there were two smelters in Calcified and Managua, The Challenge central smelters was built by The Challenge Smelting Company It opened in 1901, smattering copper, gold and silver lead, The smelters finally closed in 1343. Today Shillelaghs industries are tourism, marble, minerals and cattle, Ritual and Practical The Aborigines used rituals to connect themselves to the Dreaming and to contact their ancestors. An example of one of these rituals is the corroboree. The corroboree is a ceremonial meeting Of Aborigines. At the corroboree the artisans are connected to the Dreaming through dances and music. At many corroboree the aborigines act out events from the Dreaming. They pass these rituals down from generation to generation. The custodians of particular sacred sites perform ceremonies at different times Of the year. Non Aborigines arent allowed to watch or participate in a corroboree. At Tijuana, they showed us how the aborigines would perform a corroboree. They showed was how to use aboriginal music instruments e. G. Didgeridoo and how to perform the dances Experiential and Emotional Dimension Aborigines believe that they are connected to the land. When they die the Aborigines believe that they become part of the land. If the land is destroyed, they believe they have lost apart of themselves. It is said that the Aboriginal people can communicate with their ancestor spirits through the land. The aborigines at Challenge believed that the caves contained evil spirits. They say that if you entered the caves you would not return. Mythological or Narrative Dimension The beginning of the world is described through dreaming stories. Each tribe around Australia has a different version on how the world was created. Most of the stories the aborigines told were about the world and why it is the way it is. At Tijuana they showed the Duggan peoples story of how the world was created. There were two elements that came out of a cassowary egg, The two elements were the Wet and the Dry. From the two elements all life forms were created. Also two brothers came, one was from the wet and one was from the dry. The Wet brother made things hard for the aborigines so they would be strengthened by the environment, While the Dry brother made things easier for the aborigines. The Wet brother then killed the DO/ brother. Then one day at a river the Wet brother was killed by a crocodile, one Of his creations. Doctrinal and Philosophical Dimension The aborigines got their laws from the Dreaming. The elders teach the younger aborigines about the laws the Dreaming and to live in harmony with the land, follow the laws and have respect for everything. The elders addressed issues within their tribes so they didnt fight amongst themselves. Totems were a fundamental part of Aboriginal life. The totem is normally an animal but it could be a sacred landmark or plant. An aboriginal is given their totem when they are born. .u441dbfe18ba92e91ffb80783aeb7aaf3 , .u441dbfe18ba92e91ffb80783aeb7aaf3 .postImageUrl , .u441dbfe18ba92e91ffb80783aeb7aaf3 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u441dbfe18ba92e91ffb80783aeb7aaf3 , .u441dbfe18ba92e91ffb80783aeb7aaf3:hover , .u441dbfe18ba92e91ffb80783aeb7aaf3:visited , .u441dbfe18ba92e91ffb80783aeb7aaf3:active { border:0!important; } .u441dbfe18ba92e91ffb80783aeb7aaf3 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u441dbfe18ba92e91ffb80783aeb7aaf3 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u441dbfe18ba92e91ffb80783aeb7aaf3:active , .u441dbfe18ba92e91ffb80783aeb7aaf3:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u441dbfe18ba92e91ffb80783aeb7aaf3 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u441dbfe18ba92e91ffb80783aeb7aaf3 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u441dbfe18ba92e91ffb80783aeb7aaf3 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u441dbfe18ba92e91ffb80783aeb7aaf3 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u441dbfe18ba92e91ffb80783aeb7aaf3:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u441dbfe18ba92e91ffb80783aeb7aaf3 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u441dbfe18ba92e91ffb80783aeb7aaf3 .u441dbfe18ba92e91ffb80783aeb7aaf3-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u441dbfe18ba92e91ffb80783aeb7aaf3:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Taming Of The Shrew (1094 words) EssayFor the rest toothier elite they are not allowed to hurt, kill or eat their totem. Ethical and Legal Dimension The Dreaming shaped the rules for their ceremonies and everyday life. If an Aborigine went against these rules they were punished. The elders decided what the punishment should be. Some punishments were banishment, death and physical damage If an aboriginals punishment was a spear through his leg and he survived he was allowed back into the tribe again. At Marimba, one of the talkers explained about how the elders role is to teach he next generation about the beliefs and to make sure they follow them. The elders are also considered guardians and have certain responsibilities. There job is to look after and protect certain sacred areas and make sure it is not disturbed by outsiders. Social and Institutional Dimension The kinship Of the aborigines was a network Of relationships that governed and interacted been members of a tribe. The elders were the authority and the tribe looked to them for advice. The men were the hunters which caught the large game while the women were the gatherers which gathered the fruit ND other small foods, they also cooked the meal An Aboriginal was given a totem when they were born. The totem was normally an animal, They had responsibilities and laws which they had to uphold. An example of this not to harm, kill or eat their totem. If they broke the laws and responsibilities they were punished. Marriage was an important aboriginal ceremony. An aboriginal wasnt allowed to marry a person that was of the same totem and true love was against the law. Material Dimension The aborigines didnt have any buildings but they had sacred sites and artwork. They used sculptures, bark and rock paintings to express what they believed in. To paint the aborigines had to trade with other tribes to get different color ochre if they couldnt get them in their own area. The art Of the aborigines was an important way for them to communicate and tell stories between each other. Only recently White people have called aboriginal artifacts and images art. They made didgeridoos to express their beliefs through music. They used the didgeridoo in ceremonies and used it to imitate animals so they could celebrate the environment around them. Only men were allowed to play the didgeridoo. The aborigines had different sacred sites for each tribe. An example of a sacred site to the Challenge aborigines was the Bogey Hole. The reason the Bogey Hole was sacred to the Challenge aborigines is because it provided them with water all year round. Conclusion The trip to Challenge has given me a better understanding into aboriginal society and how they used to live, It was good to learn about there religion because it is one of the oldest religions in the world. I think that we should all treat the environment like the aboriginals and we all could learn a thing or two from them.

Monday, December 2, 2019

The Presentation of Women in Othello Essay Example

The Presentation of Women in Othello Paper Shakespeares portrayal of Desdemona, Emilia and Bianca in Othello comes, generally, in two forms which reflect the prevailing opinion of women in Elizabethan times as mysterious and angelic or, whores, determined to cuckold their husbands. When Othello was written a patriarchal society was the norm. Women had clearly defined roles, as housewives and mothers; they were viewed as inferior, not only physically, but also emotionally. It was thought that they needed a male to protect them, if they were married this responsibility would fall to the husband and if the woman were single, it would be the duty of her father or another male relative. References to any of the three women, Desdemona, Emilia or Bianca, by the other characters, seems always either to praise them for their virtue and beauty, or else condemn them as whores that manipulate men to achieve their own ends. All three are rejected by their respective partners/husbands; they love them almost unconditionally, even when confronted with indifferent and callous behaviour. They are engaged in unbalanced partnerships: they feel more for their self-centred men than the men are capable of reciprocating. Bianca serves to represent the latter of the two opinions; she is a courtesan in Cyprus (Tis such another fitchew IV. i. 145). She is a contrast to Emilia and Desdemona as she is not a part of the domestic world in which they belong; this immediately casts her from the kind of femininity that Desdemona is said to possess. She has fallen in love with Cassio and pursues him quite wholeheartedly, however her affections are not returned (But that you do not love me. III. iv. 197), and she is eaten by jealously (O Cassio, whence came this? This is some token from a newer friend! III. iv. 180-1), Cassio and Iago dismiss this as her unruly nature and respond to her in a patronising manner (Go to, woman, / Throw your vile guesses in the devils teeth / From whence you have them! III. iv. 183-5). We will write a custom essay sample on The Presentation of Women in Othello specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Presentation of Women in Othello specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Presentation of Women in Othello specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer She is thought by the men to be a sexual being with a tempestuous nature, in need of control and unworthy of regard (What do you mean by his haunting of me? IV. i. 146). Bianca is held with disdain by men for her explicit sexuality, whereas Cassio, who is committing adultery (A fellow almost dammed in a fair wife I. . 20), receives none. This is a good example of the double standards that existed for women at this time, some of which can still be seen in the modern day, it being more socially acceptable for a man to be promiscuous than a female. Emilia is the representation of the dutiful wife, she is part of the domestic world in which Othello takes place, her marriage is neither happy nor successful, and yet she continues to try to please Iago (for example, by giving him the handkerchief). Iagos treatment of Emilia is very poor; he belittles her continuously throughout the play (Sir, would she give you so much of her lips / As of her tongue she oft bestows on me / Youd have enough II. i. 100-3), with little or no protest on her part. He also suspects her of having an affair with Othello (I hate the Moor / And it is thought abroad that twixt my sheets / Hes done my office. I. iii. 385-7), there is no proof in the text that for this, he does not ask her openly in the play about it and it seems to be a rumour that Iago is merely using for the justification of his actions. Emilia is all too aware that Iagos behaviour towards her is undeserved, she explains to Desdemona in Act 5 how women often suffer this treatment, and what happens as consequence (Then let them use us well: else let them know, / The ills we do, their ills instruct us so. V. 1. 101-2), this suggests to the audience that although women were legally and religiously bound to a subservient position, not all women behaved in a subservient way. In the final scene Emilia is quite prepared to reveal Iagos deceit, however, interestingly, she is fully aware that she is not, by social convention, supposed to, she actually apologises to those present when she disobeys him (Good gentlemen, let me have leave to speak. / Tis proper I obey him but not now. V. ii. 192-3). This disobedience does not pass without penalty, Iago stabs and kills Emilia, proving to the audience just how unbalanced their relationship was. Desdemona is spoken of by the other members of Othello as saintly, kind and virtuous, Cassio goes so far as to describe her as She is indeed perfection (II. ii. 25), and indeed, in Elizabethan times, if a women was not viewed as a whore, she was likely thought to be angelic (Queen Elizabeth I, for example). Shakespeare however was able to characterise women as real people, and take them from their pedestal. The character of Desdemona is often criticised as being weak and mono-dimensional, however in addition to being chaste, loving and virtuous, she is also articulate, stubborn, passionate, practical, and sexually aware. Many of these traits are shown in one of the few moments in the play we meet Desdemona without Othello, in Act II, scene I. She fully understands Iagos innuendos and is able to challenge him (Come on, assay. II. i. 120) in a witty and articulate manner. Desdemonas independence is portrayed explicitly by the fact that she married Othello without her fathers permission (Your daughter, if you have not given her leave, / I say again, hath made a gross revolt, I. i. 131). Women were viewed as a commodity, and marriage as more of a business transaction than union of lovers (Faith, he tonight hath boarded a land carrack: / If it prove lawful prize, hes made for ever. I. ii. 50-1). The opinion of women as the property of men is again illustrated when Iago calls to Brabantio that he has been robbed Look to your house, your daughter and your bags! (I. i. 79), that a person could be grouped alongside a house and money seems shocking in a modern western society, but was obviously the social norm in Shakespeares time as Brabantio takes no offence from that statement. Desdemona is aware of her duty to her father (To you I am bound for life and education: / you are the lord of duty I. iii. 183-5) and that now she is married, her obedience falls to her husband (I may profess / Due to the Moor my lord. I. iii. 188-9), the independence which Desdemona has shown is not seen as acceptable by her father who wishes to have control over her (and in his mind, so he should she is his property) Fathers, from hence trust not your daughters / minds / By what you see them act. I. i. 167-9) and later in the play, the extent of which she is submissive to Othello is stark contrast to these earlier actions, showing the multiple facets of Desdemonas personality, bound by traditional values yet independent minded and willing to support such non-conformist ideas (for the time) as racial equality. Iago is a misogynistic character, he is incapable of viewing women as anything other than worthless nymphomaniacs and when referring to them in Othello it is always with a debauched tone You rise to play, and go to bed to work (II. i. 115). He cannot believe that Desdemona could possibly love Othello and when talking of the couple does it in the most debasing manner (Even now, now, very now, an old black ram / Is tupping your white ewe! I. i. 7-8), always with sexual inferences and often with reference to animals, believing their love to be no more than lust whereof I take this, that you call / love, to be a sect or scion. (I. iii. 331-2). A good example of Iagos firm opinion of Desdemona can be seen in a conversation with Cassio who believes Desdemona to be saintly, Shes a most exquisite lady, And Ill warrant her full of game (II. iii. 17-18). Although Iago may have an extreme opinion of women, it was not too dissimilar from that of other men in the play. Men felt that there was something mysterious about women which they could not understand, they inhabited a different world, the domestic world of house and home, and a more physical world (eg. pregnancy, menstrual cycle) than men. It was felt that they were dangerous, temptresses who would lead them astray, needing to be controlled. The women of Othello do not always conform to the norms set by male opinion, but they are often constrained and held back because of them, and the mens fear that they will disobey sets the scene for much of the tension within the play, resulting in the many tragic deaths.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Hamlet as Mysogynist essays

Hamlet as Mysogynist essays During the period of Hamlets life recorded in the play leading up to his death, he appears to have an abundance of relatively serious issues with the vital women in his life. Although Hamlet during this period has discrepancies with just about everyone associated in his life, men or women alike. There are only two female roles in the play Hamlet, this makes interpreting whether Hamlet is a Misogynist or not somewhat difficult. The primary female role is Hamlets mother who Hamlet usually is very close with but in recent times has developed anger towards over the lack of mourning portrayed by her over the death of her husband and Hamlets father. Ophelia is the other female role she is a young girl whose family is acquainted Hamlets royal family. In the past there was a sort of attraction between the two, but as that has now faded Hamlet has grown frustrated and angered with her and no longer holds remotely the same feeling towards her as he once did. Therefore through these dispo sitions Hamlet apparently has developed a disrespectful attitude towards these two women, which could be viewed by some as being characteristic of someone who is a misogynist. Whether this is true or not is up to the interpretation of the reader, it could be that Hamlets consistent betrayal by the women in his life has added to the growing hatred of women through Hamlets eyes, or that it just so happens the only two representations of women in this play happen to not be on good terms with Hamlet and he really has no distinctive hatred of women kind in general. Throughout the beginning of the book it is apparently obvious to some that Hamlets relationship with his mother is a little more than a proper mother-son relationship, needless to say they are and have been very close. After the recent actions of his mother marrying his uncle only two months after his fathers death and Ha ...

Saturday, November 23, 2019

5 steps to a better job in 2018

5 steps to a better job in 2018 â€Å"Get a better job† is a very common New Year’s resolution, but it’s also a tough one to get started- especially if winter laziness sets in. It’s not like going to the gym, where you can physically get up and go somewhere and call it a success, even if it’s only one time a week. You need to put in a ton of work beforehand and change the way you approach the world around you. Here are 5 steps to get you started on the path to a new and better job.1. Come up with a plan.Before you start browsing job sites, think about what you’re seeking. Do you want to stay in the same industry? Are you looking for the same kind of job, but for more money? What does the next step up look like for you? Are you ready for a step up? Think about what it is you really want in your new job. If you just kind of jump in without having a set plan or timelines around your job search goals, it will be easy to abandon the whole thing if you don’t get results ri ght away.2. Ask for it.If you’re seeking a promotion, you’re far more likely to get it if you ask for it. Some companies give unasked-for promotions as a matter of course, but you’re much more likely to be successful if you say, â€Å"Hey, I’m here, I’ve accomplished these things, and I’m ready for more.† This is where an elevator pitch comes in handy as you prepare to talk to your boss. You want to be able to clearly and efficiently lay out the reasons why you deserve a better title and more responsibilities.3. Be open to different kinds of opportunities.Online search engines and other traditional job hunt tools are great assets to have- but don’t forget the human assets at your disposal. A lot of hiring is done because someone knows someone else who would be a good fit for that new job opening. And that means there are job opportunities out there that never see the light of day (or the search engine). Make sure your network i s ever growing, and in good working order.4. Rebuild your application package.If you’re thinking about dusting off your old resume, maybe doing some find-and-replace on the dates, and sending it out, think again. If you want a better job you need a stepped-up resume game. That means creating a new resume masterpiece from scratch, with careful consideration about what you should be including, and how it reflects your career now.5. Build your skills. While you’re looking, this is a good chance to build up some of those resume-enhancing skills, like mastering particular kinds of software. This doesn’t mean you have to go back to school, but there are lots of online courses and resources that can help you build professional skills on your own schedule and at your own pace.Getting a better job is a great and attainable goal to have. Putting a plan and energy behind it is the best way to ensure that you won’t be sitting in the same place this time next year, th inking, â€Å"Man, I really need a new job.†

Thursday, November 21, 2019

International Relations (The Role and functions of the IMF and the Essay

International Relations (The Role and functions of the IMF and the World Bank in the International Economic System) - Essay Example tical science, is the study of foreign affairs of and relations among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). It is both an academic and public policy field, and can be either positive or normative as it both seeks to analyze as well as formulate foreign policy.† It also referred to IR as drawing upon such diverse fields as economics, history, law, philosophy, geography, sociology, anthropology, psychology, and cultural studies and that it involves a diverse range of issues, from globalization and its impacts on societies and state sovereignty to ecological sustainability, nuclear proliferation, nationalism, economic development, terrorism, organized crime, human security and human rights. (Paraphrasing made) As to how international relations originated, one cannot avoid talking about the Peace of Westphalia of 1648. It is with Westphalia that e the modern state system was developed since it encouraged the rise of the nation-state and the institutionalization of diplomacy and armies. (Wikipedia-IR, 2006) (Paraphrasing made) Having a background therefore of IR, we are confronted with the questions: What are the institutions involved? The United Nations assumes a major role in IR as it describes itself as a "global association of governments facilitating co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity". Wikipedia, (2006) stated that it is the most prominent international institution and many of the legal institutions follow the same organizational structure as the UN. (Paraphrasing made) UN has therefore affiliations with several legal institutions which include International Court of Justice, European Court of Justice and the African Court of Justice. It has also affiliations with human rights organisations which include, United Nations Human Rights Council,

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Fine Arts research paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Fine Arts research paper - Essay Example Also Vecellio’s Venus is more humane while Botticelli’s Venus has a divine aura about her Venus, the Goddess of Love has been an object of much study and admiration in the art circles of all times. Venus is basically a Roman goddess of love who is often linked with sensuality, beauty, fertility and desire. It is the aura and desire of Venus that has attracted the attention of many. Venus was often the central figure in religious festivals during the Roman era. Even as society progressed, Venus did not lose her charm since artists of almost all generations were inspired by her mystery and popularity. It was because of this that Venus was chosen as a subject for painting by most artists in almost all eras including Roman, Hellenistic and Renaissance periods. With the apparent sensuality of Venus, it became acceptable for Venus to be painted nude among the social elite of the Renaissance times. As a result, Venus was usually portrayed nude in her painting and even those painting that depicted nude females, most usually relate them with the Goddess of Love, Venus. Two painting of Venus by two artists belonging to different eras may have the same element of nudity for their Venus but the character, persona and background of Venus differs from one painting to another. In this paper, we attempt to compare the Venus painted by Sandro Botticelli in her ‘Brith of Venus’ with Tiziano Vecellio’s Venus of Urbino. These artists belong to different time settings and thus have explored Venus in a completely different context. In both the paintings, Venus is shown as a sexual being. However, the similarity ends here. Botticelli’s Venus is modest as compared to the wanton Venus of Vecellio. Also Vecellio’s Venus is more humane while Botticelli’s Venus has a divine aura about her. Sandro Botticelli was an Italian painter who gained popularity during the Early Renaissance period for his linear grace and

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Gothic art and architecture Essay Example for Free

Gothic art and architecture Essay The thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, spanned by what we term the Gothic period, saw a revolution in the social and economic life of Europe. As princes created fixed capitals for themselves instead of the earlier uncomfortable peripatetic courts, so the earlier agricultural system gave way before a more modern money economy. The movements brought great changes in their train and were to have a profound effect upon the arts. For the first, the building of castles, palaces and town residences not only gave a new importance to the visual effect of surroundings but also to the ideas of comfort and luxury. The court of Burgundy led the way and life came to be dominated by intricate ceremonial inherited in part from antiquity, Byzantium and the orient, and elaborated into an obligatory etiquette destined to reach its most exaggerated expression in baroque Spain. At the end of the period this court culture flowered into what was an almost decadent magnificence. Gothic sculpture, like Gothic architecture, originated in France, and it, too, spread rapidly throughout Europe, varying in each country (Frankl 21). Gothic art had become common to all of Europe, and its national variants did not develop in isolation, although they always remained distinct within the framework of the style. There was a good deal of practical exchange, and German holy images were ordered from and sent to Italy, French ivory caskets and small altars were exported to England and Germany and English alabasters were exported throughout Europe (Frankl 25). In its transition from the Romanesque, Gothic architecture was characterized by an open stone framework supporting a stone vaulting (Frankl 3). As this development reached its peak, painting and sculpture were almost completely subjected to architecture, though all three arts were ultimately to gain. It was inevitable that large-scale mural painting should give way as the walls of Gothic churches were increasingly devoted to ever-larger windows. However, these new transparent walls of glass were quickly claimed by the painters and at the very moment when they were most dependent upon the good will of the architect, they achieved their greatest triumphs; for this new painting with colour and light on enormous areas of glass amounted to the conquest of a new artistic field. Glass painting, from being a pleasant accessory of the old order of architecture, had gradually become an indispensable feature of Gothic interior decoration. Its greatest successes were achieved, as were those of the Gothic style as a whole, primarily north of the Alps, and its decline accompanied that of the style as a whole (West 104-05). In appropriating sculpture, Gothic cathedral architecture presented it with such gigantic new problems that it was taxed almost beyond its strength. The figures that had previously been sparingly applied to doorways and towers multiplied and became immense crowds nestling in groups round doorways and towers. As a result of this dependence on architecture, more sculpture was commissioned in the Gothic period than at any other time between antiquity and the baroque era; indeed the sculptor has probably never been so much in demand as he was then (West 137-39). At the end of the Gothic period, when architecture tired, when cathedrals, started at the peak of the period, remained unfinished despite increasingly extended building periods; when towers, planned on a gigantic scale, were left incomplete; when niches on pillars and portals still remained empty, sculpture was still strong enough to leave the sinking ship, alert enough to recapture part of its former territory. It was altar-decoration which gave new life to the dying art of monumental sculpture. Here sculptors and wood carvers gradually developed the simplicity of the early retable into an architectural structure worthy to carry their figures. The Gothic winged altar grew from the mensa, until, high under the distant vaulting, multitudinous groups of figures were gathered into its forest-like branches, both over centrepiece and over wings. At the close of the Gothic period a true Kleinplastik developed-Kleinplastik is an untranslatable word which applies to small, delicate carvings, sometimes only a few inches high, which were later to become the passion of the lay collector with his delight in elaborate material and craftsmanship. The ideals of the thirteenth century were still those that had inspired the crusades and which, towards the end of the eleventh century, had fired the western Christian world with a zeal to free the Holy Land from the Mohammedan infidels. In the space of a few generations, religious fervour and love of adventure moved hundreds of thousands from every country to do battle with the dangerously advancing forces of Islam. Great victories awaited them, but also shameful defeats; fame and riches, but imprisonment and miserable death as well. An important after-effect of the period of the crusades, which really ended at the close of the thirteenth century, was the growing prosperity, not only at the courts but also amongst the lesser nobility and the burghers. It was accompanied by a taste for luxury, a desire for a less simple mode of life, which in turn generated the forces needed to satisfy the new demands. The world had become, in contemporary eyes,-not only bigger and wider, but also more beautiful and interesting. Thus poetry and the arts, as well as the crafts, which had worked almost solely for the honour of God and the glory of his Church, were now called upon to glorify the everyday world (West 210-11). Commerce and the crafts, in all their colourful diversity, gained respect. As they grew in importance, guilds and merchant companies came into being, and succeeded in getting a voice in the administration of the cities, until the cities finally obtained freedom from the feudal overlord, owed allegiance only to the emperor, and were able to form political alliances with other cities. There was no more bondage for the burgher. The main roads met in the cities, which were the centres for travellers and pilgrims and for the trade of goods from far and near. The great building organizations were situated within their walls and they sheltered the artists and craftsmen; new wealth accumulated in the cities and with it a new civic pride appeared. All these developments offered the Gothic sculptor and carver many opportunities and, moreover, each generation had an insatiable desire to express its own artistic feeling. This was only made possible, over the years, by making room, by repeatedly clearing away or destroying the outmoded work of previous generations. Furthermore, the changing and often more elaborate liturgical customs and rites of the high and late Middle Ages demanded new equipment, new furnishings, and these afforded new subjects for the artist. For example, the appearance of the Rosary brotherhoods of the late Middle Ages produced a flood of Gothic Madonnas. The fast-spreading cult of St Anne led to the creation of charming groups showing her with the Virgin and Child (Branner 47). The number of altars increased considerably during the Gothic period in the cathedrals and collegiate churches especially, but also in the parish churches. The spacious churches of this era often had dozens of altars, sometimes more than fifty. The burgher, noble, or even ecclesiastic donors of these altars made themselves responsible for the material needs of the priest who served at their altar as well as for the provision of an artistically conceived altar with furnishings of admirable craftsmanship (Frankl 95). For such an altarpiece tradition demanded a representation of the patron saint, a cross, candelabra, an altar cloth, and robes. The buttresses of the new churches favoured the construction of subsidiary chapels and thereby increased the potential space for additional altars, which meant more commissions for the artists. The altarpiece which, as the chief domain of art, combined painting and sculpture in a common effort, has become the classic expression of late Gothic art for the world at large. In these altarpieces, the central section was generally reserved for three-dimensional figures. The insides of the wings were often given to the carvers for their reliefs, if they had not already been allotted to the paintersfor whom the outsides of the wings were always reserved. Such an altar complex was indeed imposing; its changing face-different on weekdays, Sundays and feast days-served as a kind of three-dimensional picture book of the church year for a pious world which could as yet neither read nor write, and so readily sought these vivid illustrations of the scriptures. The Western world found, in Gothic art, a means of symbolizing the Christian capacity to experience life and religion as conceived within the framework of medieval piety. Although each nation added something of its own national peculiarities the style retained its validity as a common artistic expression of Western Christianity and was universally recognized. Works Cited Branner, Robert. Burgundian Gothic Architecture. A. Zwemmer, 1960. Frankl, Paul. Gothic Architecture. Penguin Books, 1962. West, George Herbert. Gothic Architecture in England and France. G. Bell Sons, 1911.